Is Liberal Democracy in Retreat? Democracy, after all, is not inevitable, and yet it remains the best system of governance compared to the known alternatives.
The Acropolis of Athens by Leo von Klenze. Athens is often regarded [i] as the birthplace of democracy and remains an important reference-point for democracy. Athens emerged in the 7th century BCE, like many other poleiswith a dominating powerful aristocracy.
These problems exacerbated early in the 6th century; and, as "the many were enslaved to few, the people rose against the notables". This included Sparta in the second half of the 7th century BCE.
The constitutional reforms implemented by Lycurgus in Sparta introduced a hoplite state that showed, in turn, how inherited governments can be changed and lead to military victory. As the Rhetra did in Lycurgian Sparta, Solon formalized the composition and functions of the governmental bodies.
All citizens gained the right to attend the Ecclesia Assembly and to vote. The Ecclesia became, in principle, the sovereign body, entitled to pass laws and decrees, elect officials, and hear appeals from the most important decisions of the courts.
The higher governmental posts, those of the archons magistrateswere reserved for citizens of the top two income groups. The retired archons became members of the Areopagus Council of the Hill of Areswhich like the Gerousia in Sparta, was able to check improper actions of the newly powerful Ecclesia.
Solon created a mixed timocratic and democratic system of institutions.
The constitutional reforms eliminated enslavement of Athenians by Athenians, established rules for legal redress against over-reaching aristocratic archons, and assigned political privileges on the basis of productive wealth rather than of noble birth. Some of Solon's reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often[ quantify ] credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy.
CleisthenesEphialtesand Pericles The Pnyx with the speaker's platform, the meeting place of the people of Athens Even though the Solonian reorganization of the constitution improved the economic position of the Athenian lower classes, it did not eliminate the bitter aristocratic contentions for control of the archonship, the chief executive post.
His sons Hippias and Hipparchus succeeded him. In the late s, Ephialtes and Pericles presided over a radicalization of power that shifted the balance decisively to the poorest sections of society, by passing laws which severely limited the powers of the Council of the Areopagus and allowed thetes Athenians without wealth to occupy public office.
If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if no social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition.
The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. Marble, Roman copy after a Greek original from ca. The Athenian democracy of Cleisthenes and Pericles was based on freedom of citizens through the reforms of Solon and on equality of citizens isonomia - introduced by Cleisthenes and later expanded by Ephialtes and Pericles.
To preserve these principles, the Athenians used lot for selecting officials. Casting lots aimed to ensure that all citizens were "equally" qualified for office, and to avoid any corruption allotment machines were used.
The courts had unlimited power to control the other bodies of the government and its political leaders. The only officials chosen by elections, one from each tribe, were the strategoi generalswhere military knowledge was required, and the treasurers, who had to be wealthy, since any funds revealed to have been embezzled were recovered from a treasurer's private fortune.
Debate was open to all present and decisions in all matters of policy were taken by majority vote in the Ecclesia compare direct democracyin which all male citizens could participate in some cases with a quorum of The decisions taken in the Ecclesia were executed by the Boule ofwhich had already approved the agenda for the Ecclesia.
The Athenian Boule was elected by lot every year  and no citizen could serve more than twice. SocratesPlatoand Aristotle Within the Athenian democratic environment, many philosophers from all over the Greek world gathered to develop their theories.
Aristotle — BCE continued the work of his teacher, Plato, and laid the foundations of political philosophy. The political philosophy developed in Athens was, in the words of Peter Hall, "in a form so complete that hardly added anyone of moment to it for over a millennium".
For Aristotle, the underlying principles of democracy are reflected in his work Politics: But one factor of liberty is to govern and be governed in turn; for the popular principle of justice is to have equality according to number, not worth, and if this is the principle of justice prevailing, the multitude must of necessity be sovereign and the decision of the majority must be final and must constitute justice, for they say that each of the citizens ought to have an equal share; so that it results that in democracies the poor are more powerful than the rich, because there are more of them and whatever is decided by the majority is sovereign.
This then is one mark of liberty which all democrats set down as a principle of the constitution. And one is for a man to live as he likes; for they say that this is the function of liberty, inasmuch as to live not as one likes is the life of a man that is a slave.Lebanese tourist sentenced to 8 years for insulting Egypt in Facebook video Woman posted 10 minute video after Cairo vacation saying she was sexually harassed, calling Egypt ‘country of pimps.
The Present - Western foreign policy is still flawed American foreign policy is still today often in conflict with American values of democracy and freedom.. Not its support of the democracy of Israel, which is perfectly right and proper.
Rather its support of unfree states like Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Pakistan, that share no common values with the west, and where human rights do not exist.
Mohamed Anwar El Sadat, a nephew of the late Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, and Sameh Fawzy, who was appointed to Egypt’s Shura Council by former President Morsi, provide context.
Mohamed Anwar Ahmed Esmat El Sadat is the Chairman and founder of the Reform and Development Party. Mount Sinai: Mount Sinai, a granite peak of the south-central Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.
Mount Sinai is renowned as the principal site of divine revelation in Jewish history, where God is purported to have appeared to Moses and given him the Ten Commandments.
Indeed, the pro-democracy movement in Tunisia which many credit as having inspired the Egyptian uprising took nearly a month, and they are still struggling to ensure that the end of the Ben Ali.
Coordinates. Egypt (/ ˈ iː dʒ ɪ p t / () EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصر Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر Maṣr, Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ K h ēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai rutadeltambor.com is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to.