Nursing in the 1900 1919 essay example

It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment. In the nineteenth century the assumption went over to the other extreme — that the primitive state was one of universal warfare. This, like the former notion, is a great exaggeration.

Nursing in the 1900 1919 essay example

Goldmark Report InAdelaide Nutting relentless in her efforts to document the need for nursing education reform approached the Rockefeller Foundation for support.

Research and Qualitative Research in Nursing Essay Words | 8 Pages. Nursing research has been a part of nursing practice for many years, consisting of both qualitative and quantitative research; it is essential in guiding nursing practice. Mary Gardner was an avid writer on public health nursing throughout her career (Gardner, ). Gardner was the director of the PDNS from – Gardner was the . The rules of the economic game have radically changed in the last years! These are the 50 most influential economists from to the present.

Funding was provided, and, inthe Committee for the Study of Nursing Education was established to investigate the training of public health nurses. Winslow, professor of public health, Yale Universitychaired the committee, composed of ten physicians, two lay persons, and six nurses: Josephine Goldmark, a social worker, served as the secretary to the committee.


As secretary, Goldmark developed the methodology of data collection and analysis for a small sampling of the schools of nursing in existence. The study of 23 of the best nursing schools across the nation represented a cross-sample of schools—small and large, public and private.

Nursing in the 1900 1919 essay example

Goldmark identified the major weakness of the hospital- based training programs as that of putting the needs of the institution service delivery before the needs of the student education.

Nursing tradition and the apprenticeship form of education reinforced putting the needs of the client before the learning needs of the student. Some major inadequacies identified in nursing education by the study were limited resources, low admission standards, lack of supervision, poorly trained instructors, and failure to correlate clinical practice with theory.

The report concluded that for nursing to be on equal footing with other disciplines, nursing education should occur in the university setting. A Study for Change. Several recommendations were put forth in this study, including the need for nurses to demonstrate greater professional competence by moving nursing education from the hospital to the university setting.

Although published 20 years after the Goldmark report, the Brown report identified many of the same problems in diploma education—nursing students were still being used for service by the hospitals and inadequate resources and authoritarianism in hospitals still prevailed in nursing education. Brown recognized that nursing education in the university setting would provide the proper intellectual climate for the professional.

Visionary nurse educators were securing necessary learning resources: Professional endeavors such as research and publication were being implemented by nurse leaders.

Some contributing factors to the dearth of nurses were the low esteem of nursing as a profession, long hours with a heavy workload, and low salaries. There was a proliferation of practical nursing schools in the United States to increase the supply of nurses. This era also saw passage of the Nurse Training Actwhich provided federal funds to expand enrollments in schools of nursing.

Federal funds were used to construct nursing schools, and student loans and scholarships were made available to nursing students. Selected Legislation The Health Maintenance Organization Act of provided an alternative to the private health insurance industry.

Health maintenance organizations HMOs are prepaid health plans that provide primary health care services for a predetermined fee.

See Chapter 7 for further discussion. Because the fee is set in advance of services being rendered, HMOs provide cost-effective services. See Chapter 3 for further discussion. Through the efforts of Anne Zimmerman, former President of the ANA, the bill was amended to substitute the term primary care providers for physician extenders and, therefore, allowed nurse practitioners to be paid directly for their services.

This was a major success for nursing. The Rural Health Clinic Service Act of covered services rendered by nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives.

The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of mandated payment for nurse-midwife services to needy recipients. Nursing became an integral part in meeting the needs of vulnerable populations.

Contemporary Reports During the s, several important studies were commissioned to examine the areas of nursing education and practice. The study, Nursing and Nursing Education:Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university (HBCU) located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United was established by Lewis Adams and Booker T. campus is designated as the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site by the National Park Service and is the only one in the U.S. to have this designation. The university was home to scientist George Washington Carver. Research and Qualitative Research in Nursing Essay Words | 8 Pages.

Nursing research has been a part of nursing practice for many years, consisting of both qualitative and quantitative research; it is essential in guiding nursing practice. Volleyball is one of the world’s most popular sports and is played by more than million people on the planet at least once a week.

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