Rotherham rape victim reveals new care scandal Mother demands change in law after council gave abuser chance to meet her son A rape victim at the centre of a care scandal demanded a shake-up of the law last night after revealing that Rotherham council had invited her jailed abuser to seek access to her son.
Status[ edit ] Certain nations and regions of the UK have frameworks for the promotion of their autochthonous languages. This was further enforced through the passing of the Welsh Language Wales Measure In Northern IrelandIrish and Ulster Scots enjoy limited use alongside English mainly in publicly commissioned translations.
Cornish in Cornwall Irish and Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland Scots and Scottish Gaelic in Scotland Welsh in Wales Under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages which is not legally enforceable, but which requires states to adopt appropriate legal provision for the use of regional and minority languages the UK government has committed itself to the recognition of certain regional languages and the promotion of certain linguistic traditions.
CornishScots in Scotland and Northern Ireland in the latter territory officially known as Ulster Scots or Ullansbut in the speech of users simply as Scottish or Scots are protected by the lower level only Section II.
In Northern Ireland, the department responsible for culture displays official administrative identity in English, Irish and Ulster Scots A number of bodies have been established to oversee the promotion of the regional languages: In Wales, the Welsh Language Commissioner Comisiynydd y Gymraeg is an independent body established to promote and facilitate use of the Welsh language, mainly by imposing Welsh language standards on organisations.
It receives funding from the UK government and the European Unionand is the regulator of the language's Standard Written Form french gcse leisure writing a business, agreed in Controversies[ edit ] Language vs dialect[ edit ] There are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing languages from dialectsalthough a number of paradigms exist, which give sometimes contradictory results.
The distinction is therefore a subjective one, dependent on the user's frame of reference. Since there is a very high level of mutual intelligibility between contemporary speakers of Scots in Scotland and in Ulster Ulster Scotsand a common written form was current well into the 20th century, the two varieties have usually been considered as dialects of a single tongue rather than languages in their own right; the written forms have diverged in the 21st century.
The government of the United Kingdom "recognises that Scots and Ulster Scots meet the Charter's definition of a regional or minority language". Even British Sign Language is mistakenly thought of as a form of 'English' by some, rather than as a language in its own right, with a distinct grammar and vocabulary.
The boundaries are not always clear cut, which makes it hard to estimate numbers of speakers. In modern Northern Ireland, the Irish language is closely tied with Irish republicanismdespite being used historically by many Protestant and unionist communities.
In Northern Ireland, the use of Irish and Ulster Scots is sometimes viewed as politically loaded, despite both having been used by all communities in the past. The disparity in the ratios as determined by political and faith community, despite the very large overlap between the two, reflects the very low numbers of respondents.
Often the use of the Irish language in Northern Ireland has met with the considerable suspicion of Unionists, who have associated it with the largely Catholic Republic of Irelandand more recently, with the republican movement in Northern Ireland itself.
Catholic areas of Belfast have street signs in Irish similar to those in the Republic. Some resent Scottish Gaelic being promoted in the Lowlands. Gaelic place names are relatively rare in the extreme south-east that part of Scotland which had previously been under Northumbrian rule  and the extreme north-east part of Caithnesswhere Norse was previously spoken.
To this day, many Shetlanders and Orcadians maintain a separate identity, albeit through the Shetlandic and Orcadian dialects of Lowland Scots, rather than their former tongue. Norn was also spoken at one point in Caithnessapparently dying out much earlier than Shetland and Orkney.
However, the Norse speaking population were entirely assimilated by the Gaelic speaking population in the Western Isles; to what degree this happened in Caithness is a matter of controversy, although Gaelic was spoken in parts of the county until the 20th century.
Non-recognition[ edit ] Scots within Scotland and the regional varieties of English within England receive little or no official recognition. The dialects of northern England share some features with Scots that those of southern England do not.
The regional dialects of England were once extremely varied, as is recorded in Joseph Wright 's English Dialect Dictionary and the Survey of English Dialectsbut they have died out over time so that regional differences are now largely in pronunciation rather than in grammar or vocabulary.
Public funding of minority languages continues to produce mixed reactions, and there is sometimes resistance to their teaching in schools. Partly as a result, proficiency in languages other than "Standard" English can vary widely.leisure, travel and tourism or business, work and employment (or the centre-devised option).
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Part of the aim of any language course is to introduce learners to the culture of those who speak the language whether through exploiting events which are common to that culture, or events where different cultures come together.
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